Coffee & TeaFood & Drinks

Coffee 101 A Complete Guide for Beginners

Do you love to start the day with a cup of delicious coffee? Then, which one is your favorite? Cappuccino, Latte, Espresso, or any other type? It is pretty amazing that there are so many different types of coffee around us, don’t you think? Some of them are traditional and some of them have no origin. Here, we are going to have a coffee 101 discussion including its origin, types, and making process.

Talking about the origin, have you ever thought about who invented the coffee? Where it comes from or how is it made? These questions have been going on for centuries. Still, people hardly even know about them. Although, some questions have an answer and some are yet to discover. Now, the real question is, do you know any of them? Yes or Not, Let us guide you to the secrets behind every single drop of coffee.

Although, our research doesn’t stop there. We will let you know the life cycle that turns a coffee seed into your pleasure drink. Don’t be so hasty though. There are more interesting things to discuss.

Drinking coffee every day applies a great effect on your body. Considering that, learning the Health benefits of coffee becomes essential. So, we will talk about its overall impact on the human body. If you don’t want such important research to pass by then follow our review till the end. Don’t forget to let us know your feedback.

The Brief History of Coffee

There is no distinct evidence of the coffee’s origin. Although, there are many myths and local stories about it. Some of them seem quite reasonable but there is no proof to believe them. Such as, Ethiopian people claim their land as the founding place of coffee. They believe coffee was found by a goat herder known as Kaldi. Their legend says Kaldi ate the coffee berries and noticed its energetic effect. Later, his finding spread through the region and they began to use coffee berries.

Even though there is a cloud on the founding place, there is evidence of coffee being traded and produced in the Yemeni district of Arabia. It was during the 15th century.  During the 16th century, coffee became widely known in regions like Persia, Egypt, Turkey, and Syria. Its popularity increased overtime and many coffee shops were introduced during that time. Soon after, they started to drink coffee as a tradition and symbol of social standards. As many people started to go out for journeys and trade, coffee began to reach even more regions and countries. It was said that coffee is the wine of Araby.

During the 17th century, coffee became widely known in Europe. Many travelers carried them and some of them told people about coffee and its energetic effect. Although, the very first introduction of coffee didn’t go as expected. Many countries didn’t accept it and some accused it of a drink of evil.

In 1615, Venice struck so hard against coffee that their pope had to come and clarify the matter. Coffee reached all over England by the 17th century and it was a revolution in coffee history. They promoted coffee as a traditional drink and successfully started trading in many other countries. Talking about revolution, coffee was still behind the tea in the USA during the early 17th century. But, the situation changed after the event known as Boston Tea Party. King George declared a huge tax on tea that helped coffee to flourish as the country’s most popular drink.

This is how coffee came to us from ancient times. It is their timeline story from century to century. Probably you are still waiting to know how coffee got into your country or region. But, they have their own legends, stories, and myths about them. You may love to go to the library and find it out by yourself.

Botanical classification of Coffee

As you should know, coffee comes from the coffee bean plants. There are many variants of them depending on the region and climate. We will pick a few of them to let you know their scientific standings.

Coffea Arabica – C. Arabica

These coffee trees are pretty close to the ancient coffee trees. It holds the largest portion of the world’s coffee market that is up to 70%. As expected, it produces one of the most popular types of coffee beans. Although, the tree is pretty prone to harmful factors. Thus, harvesting these coffee trees is a bit difficult. You need optimal land height, rainfall, and temperature. Yet, it is the most popular coffee plant for the highest quality coffee bean.

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
  • Infrakingdom: Streptophyta
  • Superdivision: Embryophyta
  • Division: Tracheophyta
  • Subdivision: Spermatophytina
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Superorder: Asteranae
  • Order: Gentianales
  • Family: Rubiaceae
  • Genus: Coffea L.
  • Species: Coffea arabica L.

Coffea canephora – C. canephora var. Robusta

Robusta holds second place after Arabica that is up to 30% of the global market. But, it is easy to cultivate for mass production. Robusta has high resistance against harmful factors as well. Besides, it can grow in almost any suitable or rough place and provide 30% more caffeine. Not to mention, it has resistance over temperature so it can be cultivated with less cost and high profit.

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Subkingdom: Viridiplantae
  • Infrakingdom: Streptophyta
  • Superdivision: Embryophyta
  • Division: Tracheophyta
  • Subdivision: Spermatophytina
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Superorder: Asteranae
  • Order: Gentianales
  • Family: Rubiaceae
  • Genus: Coffea L.
  • Species: Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner

What are the Steps of Coffee from Seed to Cup


From the plants to your hands, a coffee bean passes through many steps to get there. We will talk about everything you need to know about each step. Planting, harvesting, tasting, grinding, brewing, and more will be in our research list below. Let’s get to the point.


Coffee beans come from the fruit that is called a coffee cherry. Moreover, the bean is actually a seed of the cherry. After collecting these cherries, they get refined in a couple of steps. Finally, those beans become usable for coffee after grinding and brewing. The raw and fresh coffee bean is suitable for cultivating coffee plants.

First, you have to plant them into low light and shady places. Continue to water them regularly. As a reminder, a wet climate is best to plant those seeds. It also helps them growing perfectly with the extra moisture in the air. When the seed becomes ready for cultivating, plant them in a suitable area.

Harvesting the Cherries

As we are going to talk about cherries, you should already know what cherry means, right? The fruit that contains coffee beans is known as cherry. Usually, a coffee tree starts bearing fruit within 3 to 4 years. Although, it depends on the tree species. When the fruit ripens, people start harvesting them. Most countries do yearly harvesting but some countries have twice. A seasonal structure like two annual flowerings is the reason behind it.

There are two ways to pick the cherries. Either it is hand-picked or machine-picked. If the cultivating land is too huge then handpicking becomes pretty hard. It would take months to do the job. In that case, people use automatic machines to pick cherries.

On the other hand, people prefer to use the handpicking method. There is another reason behind it. While handpicking, workers only pick ripe cherries. It improves the coffee bean and overall coffee ground quality.

Processing the Cherries

After the harvesting, people start processing the cherries. A late start can cause the cherries to be spoiled. To maintain the quality, different regions use some special selection methods.

A popular processing method is drying the fruits. Instead of a selection process, it is more like a protection process to prevent spoiling. Wet cherries do get spoiled pretty fast. To prevent such an issue, people dry the cherries in an open place under the sunlight for a couple of days to weeks. It goes on until the moisture goes down under 11%.

On the other hand, there is a wet method. At first, people pulp the fruit’s skin. Later, they use water to separate big and small, heavy and light cherries. In the final step, they use a fermentation process to get rid of the outer layer of the cherries. Unlike the dry process, this method needs an extra drying process after the fermentation.

Drying the Coffee Beans

If there is a wet processing method then the cherries need extra drying afterward. The method is like the old fashioned drying system. They directly put the cherries under sunlight in an open space. This goes on as a cycle as people keep the fruits warmed and covered at night. This process continues until the cherries are fully dried.

Milling the Coffee Beans

The next step is Milling the beans. It means separating and balancing the coffee beans through different machines. The hulling process removes all the outer layers of the dry cherries. Polishing removes any leftover layer and cleans the surface perfectly. Later, there are grading and sorting processes to store beans based on different quality factors like size, weight, color, and more.

Exporting the Coffee Beans

Exporting is the next step as these milled beans have to be transferred from place to place because of commercial usage. Usually, they are transferred to industries to taste and confirm the quality.

Tasting the Coffee

As soon as the coffee beans arrive in the industry, experts start to taste the expected quality. This tasting mechanism is known as cupping. The process is simple. Experts run the beans through several grinding and brewing processes to check the smell and taste. From the user’s perspective, these processes justify the overall coffee bean quality.

Roasting the Coffee

The freshly transferred beans are known as green coffee. Coffee industries roast these fresh green coffees. The final result is the dark and brown coffee beans we get in the market. During the roasting process, when the temperature goes around 4000F, the beans start to get brown, and caffeoyl oil leaks from them. This pyrolysis process gives a dark color to the bean along with a sweet aroma. Not to mention it changes the taste as well.

Grinding Coffee

Grinding means breaking the coffee bean into a powder form that mixes with liquids like water and milk so easily. A smooth mixture always gives the best coffee taste. People usually grind beans with a grinding coffee maker. You can grind manually but that may not be as smooth as the machine.

Brewing Coffee

Brewing means making coffee-drink with the ground coffee. You need hot water to do the job. There are both manual and auto-brewing methods available. A manual process can be done by using a pot and filter paper. Besides, the automatic process needs a coffee maker machine.

Is coffee Good for Health?

Everything has a good and bad effect depending on the limit. It is no different for coffee either. Active physical condition, burning extra fat, keeping the mind fresh, reducing many physical vulnerabilities, and preventing diabetes are the several benefits of coffee.

On the other hand, hampering sleep schedule, caffeine effect, toxic elements, and increasing cholesterol are some of the health issues that come from drinking a couple of cups regularly. To stay on the positive side, don’t take more than two cups of coffee at once. It would be better if you can limit the cups to a single cup every day.


So, how was your journey through our review? From seed to drink, you should already learn about every step of making coffee. There was a time when people were afraid of coffee but now it is the most popular drink in the world. Coffee has become a tradition and art of class through time. Putting them aside, we have introduced you to major coffee bean plant types. Later, their cycle along with the industrial processes.

We have also included several Health benefits of coffee and some important FAQ answers. This research information will help you to earn knowledge of coffee and its wide development. We encourage you to search for more journals to learn the even deeper origin and secrets of coffee.


We have learned so many things about different types of coffee beans and their cycle. Now, we are going to answer some of the important questions from the users. Let’s have a look.

Who first invented coffee as a drink?

There is no evidence of a single person as the inventor. Although, modern-day Yemen is said to be the first region to properly use coffee as a drink.

What is the origin of coffee?

It is strongly believed that Ethiopia is the origin of coffee from ancient times.

Where does the best coffee come from?

There is no single country to produce the best coffee. Africa is renowned as the best coffee producer region in the world. Countries like Ethiopia, Columbia, Brazil, Jamaica, and Costa Rica are worth mentioning.

Is coffee a drug?

In terms of chemical science, caffeine in coffee is a type of stimulant drug. So, coffee is a distinct type of drug for sure.

What is the most expensive coffee in the world?

Kopi luwak is the rarest coffee in the world. Although, Black Ivory is the most expensive coffee in the world.

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